Although this research has provided a certain amount of useful information, unfortunately the data presented here is still incomplete. In particular, given the absence of exhaustive catalogues and filmographies in relation to this early period in film history, discovering information about the transnational circulation of films during the s has sometimes proved impossible without a lengthy perusal of trade magazines preserved in the film archives of each country under analysis, and through research into state offices devoted to commercial international exchanges.
Regretfully, the author was not able to conduct such forms of research for this paper. Hence, information about the films analysed in this paper is often seriously defective; even if the author has been able to view all the films still accessible either digitally or in film copies, these inevitably represent only a very small part of the titles mentioned. As regards the scarcity of information available on the international distribution of silent films, I have considered the number and the characteristics of the foreign adaptations as an indicator of the international reception of each series.
With regards to most of these movies not being available anymore, secondary sources such as promotional materials, trade magazines of the period and previous scholarly research are referenced.
This set of data and information is then used to infer how different cultural industries related to them and to describe if and what practices of appropriation have taken place. The latter takes into consideration vast amounts of literary and extra-literary data in order to study—also from a quantitative perspective—those broad historical, industrial and cultural processes sometimes neglected by literary scholars. In his work, Moretti argues that this quantitative approach, as well as associated tools of spatial visualisation such as maps, graphs and trees, is a valuable addition to the traditional methods of literary history.
Even though partially incomplete, the maps included in this paper are therefore a first attempt to apply this perspective to the study of transmedia popular culture and to stimulate further research in this direction. It shows that the original literary series, formed by three collections of short stories and a novel published between and , was translated in several countries in the ten years following its first appearance in the UK. The map also stresses a regular increase of the number of translations throughout the next three decades.
The international success of this play was a lasting one: in France the show toured the whole country numerous times until the late s. A further theatrical adaptation was produced in Spain in However, the quantity of Raffles film adaptations is even more impressive, including at least 20 works produced in five different countries.
This map makes immediately clear how the success of this series was significantly quicker, more widespread and more lasting than that of Raffles in any media. Less then five years after its first appearance on the pages of the French literary magazine Je sais tout , the series had been already translated in more than ten countries. The twenty volumes collecting Lupin stories and novels continued to be published until the death of their author in , thus supplying new material that would be promptly translated in these as well as other countries around the world for more than three decades.
However, the variety of non-French adaptations is unique, ranging from countries such as Germany , the UK and the US to even more surprisingly Russia , Hungary , Japan and China The collected data about its translation circulation is unfortunately too incomplete to make a realistic cartography of the circulation of the series.
Unlike Lupin and Raffles, it seems that the only non-French films using the figure of Zigomar were produced in Japan. The reason is possibly found, not only in the more rigid attention shown by the authors of these two series to the abusive use of their properties in comparison to Hornung and Leblanc, but also in their more subversive content.
For instance, unlike the case of the Lupin stories and novels a much smaller portion of the volumes of the series was translated. Though foreign editions were published quite rapidly in Italy, Spain, Portugal and the UK, the series was only later translated into other languages German, Hungarian, Finnish and Czech during the Twenties and Thirties. This gained the adaptations immense popularity and significantly influenced film production in several countries. As we shall see, these productions were also deeply influenced by the wider circulation of the adaptations of other series already discussed.
Their impact on international cinema will be analyzed by drawing upon studies of their reception and most especially by discussing the films inspired by the series in six different countries i.
Martinelli writes that. By that time—two years after their first release—the series had almost completed its circulation and was still screened only in small town cinemas.
In this period, violent attacks against foreign cinemas appeared with increasing frequency in film magazines—most of them being official or unofficial organs of the Italian film studios—as part of a campaign supporting a more high-brow, educational production inspired by Roman history or by nineteenth century literature and theatre. Not incidentally, this was exactly the genre of films the Italians companies were producing in this period.
Among these films, there were crime movies such as Il circolo nero Cines, , Agenzia Griffard dir. Enrique Santos, Cines, , 3 episodes. Launched in February i. Already an established actor, Ghione debuted as a director in with the two-reel Il Giglio Nero prod. Two years later, Ghione created the character of Za la Mort for the feature film Nelly, la Gigolette prod. Caesar film, It is devoted to a pogrom in Nikolaev witnessed through the eyes of 11 year old boy.
After reading it, one would understand better why so many Jews have supported the revolution and the bolsheviks specifically. The third part are just sketches from post-revolutionary St Petersburg. They are less impressive. I've read the book in Russian. I would not know how you can convey the first part in translation.
It is full of Jewish and Odessa slang and spirit. But I hope, the translation keeps the original alive. Fantastic expressive short stories. View all 4 comments. This collection of short stories about life among Jewish traders, workers and robbers in earlyth century Odessa, leading up to the revolution, almost packs the same punch as Red Cavalry. That's high praise.
Yes, it's a bit uneven, but the best stories here are astounding, switching from jovial tales of childhood that never forget the darkness underneath, to brutally violent stories of antisemitism and crime, all with a language that wants to squeeze out evey possibility carbonated with a dark This collection of short stories about life among Jewish traders, workers and robbers in earlyth century Odessa, leading up to the revolution, almost packs the same punch as Red Cavalry.
Yes, it's a bit uneven, but the best stories here are astounding, switching from jovial tales of childhood that never forget the darkness underneath, to brutally violent stories of antisemitism and crime, all with a language that wants to squeeze out evey possibility carbonated with a dark sense of humour. Take " The Story of My Dovecot ", for instance, which starts out as a hopeful story about how the narrator has saved for years to buy the pigeons he wants to raise, then suddenly out of nowhere the bright market day careens into bloody surrealism - My world was tiny, and it was awful.
I closed my eyes so as not to see it, and pressed myself tight into the ground that lay beneath me in soothing dumbness. This trampled earth in no way resembled real life, waiting for exams in real life. Somewhere far away Woe rode across it on a great steed, but the noise of the hoofbeats grew weaker and died away, and silence, the bitter silence that sometimes overwhelms children in their sorrow, suddenly deleted the boundary between body and the earth that was moving nowhither.
The earth smelled of raw depths, of the tomb, of flowers. I smelled its smell and started crying, unafraid. I was walking along an unknown street set on either side with white boxes, walking in a getup of bloodstained feathers, alone between the pavements swept clean as on Sunday, weeping bitterly, fully and happily as I never wept again in all my life.
And so with Kuzma I went to the home of the tax-inspector, where my parents, escaping the pogrom, had sought refuge. The irony only gets bleaker when I look at the foreword of my edition: "Isaac Babel,? That a writer capable of captuing the wold's messiness like this was not only denied the right to live, but even the right to a proper death, instead was swallowed in silence up by a dictator's prison camps, is beyond criminal.
I haven't read Babel in ten years. So now I've found this book and decided to give it a go because of its title.
These stories are fun, if a little violent if anyone minds , for it deals with gangsters and other misfits. Violence isn't explicit, though, and it doesn't inhabit every page of the book. Babel's language is straightforward, somewhat raw.
I wouldn't call him polished, although i I haven't read Babel in ten years. I wouldn't call him polished, although it possesses poetic qualities here and there. But it isn't poetry of Nabokov, Bunin, Pushkin, if you know what I mean. Say, you have a dirty, crime-ridden place and you describe it accordingly——not one bit of sentimentalism takes place. Whether you enjoy it is up to you. These stories are lively. Moreover, I needed a few laughs, and Babel delivered.
The use of humour in this book is typical Odessa's humour, in my opinion. That is black, sprinkled with something improbable?
Think: Ilf and Petrov. Dialogues are excellent and very true to life; you could go to Odessa and see people speak this way even today. Of course, there is one BUT. The book is culturally dense, it features many locations, thus a reader might feel a little lost. And it makes it difficult to recommend.
If you don't mind the foreignness factor then, please, go for it. If anything, Babel needs more recognition. He is a superb short story writer. The collection is night-and-day from his collection Red Cavalry , as one might expect, but it shares similar themes of violence and chaos without being as gutting as Red Cavalry.
Odessa Stories is packed with gangsters, tsarist and communist officials, pigeons, and a lot of slapstick Read the rest of my review at A Bookish Type. I received a free copy of this book from NetGalley for review consideration. Babel had a rich vein of material to mine in his hometown of Odessa, and he made the most of it, filling his stories with a vibrant atmosphere and colorful characters. In addition to all the character and atmosphere, the best of them are amusing and even moving. My favorites were the autobiographical stories in the middle.
The Story of My Dovecote, about enduring a pogrom, was particularly good, and felt very true. Considering this book gave me so many feelings, it's surprisingly hard to come up with a review. Santa Marina Holiday Village gode di una posizione. Burgas Airport is situated in a. I suoi confini coperivano l'area tra il fiume Danubio, a. Include environmental technologies and eco-innovation in co-operation with neighbouring countries, such as the Eastern.
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